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USD® from USD Mint®


Money is defined as a Unit ($) Standard and Store of Value to Exchange.

Money is Authorized by Govt ruling: USD Mint Privilege Incontestable.


USD Mint Privilege is to Provide USD Virtual Currency For Use Globally.

USD Digital$ have the Same Meaning, and USD Mint uses UCC8 Accts.


UCC8 is Fungible (UCC8-501, 504) Financial Assets in Securities Accts.

Owned by Acct Holder unless they Transfer Entitlement to USD Mint.


Money is Fungible (Interchangeable), 

Owned by Physical or Digital Bearer.

Money in Digital$ Form is in Accts, Cards, Phones for Digital Exchange.

 USD Mint as Issuer has Advantages vs Banks or eMoney.

Issuer (Central Bank, Private, Not Regulated) Issues USD.

USD is Money per UCC1-201(24) Authorized by the USA Govt,

Incontestable Privilege to Provide USD Virtual/Digital$ For Use

Globally by Computer Network as USD with Universal Access (Global).


Exempt (Not Regulated) IF a Bank or Money Transmitter handles Fiat.

Exempt if for Personal Use or If Services are Provided Free (No Fiat Paid).

URVCBA Uniform Act USA 50 States Law section 103B:  parts 2, 3, 7, 14.


Section 502 (Oct 2, 2018) UCC8 Adds Super-Negotiability, Acceptance,

Finality, Certainty, Protections for Users and for Mint as Custodian.


Wyoming125 Law clarifies in Law: Personal Property, Money, Custody.

Acct Owns & Controls, Mint has No Liability, Bailment law First use.

USD Mint Issues, 100% Reserve, UCC8 Acct as “Bailment”.

Bailor (Owner) has Bailment (USD) with Bailee (USD Mint).

USD Mint (Bailee) Safekeeping User Acct for Fungible USD.

Fungible is Interchangeable, Replace or be Replaced by USD.


UCC 8-501 Book Entry Credit or Debit of a Fungible Financial Asset.

UCC8-501 Acct Holder Owns USD Directly unless Indorsed to Mint.

UCC8-501 Issuance is Not Entitlement until Mint Credits it to a Acct.

USD is Equivalent to USD And a Substitute for USD (IRS 2014-21)

Convertible Currency USD Converts Into Govt Fiat (“Real Money”);

Mint Transfers at Bailor’s “Entitlement Order” to New Bailor Acct.

Mint Credits User Acct, User Controls/Transfers Ownership

Mint Accts Holds USD (Custody), Acct Holders Control It.

Acct Holder Owns, Controls, Mint is Not Liable UCC8-115.


Banks Own Your Deposits. Your Deposit Lends to Bank (Their $).

Depositor has a Claim on Bank (Demand Deposit) to Fractional Reserve.


eMoney is Limited Access, PrePaid Input (Mirrored$)

CBDC is Universal Access to Money Output (Issued$)

Central Bank Digital Currency: USD Mint issues USD.

USD Mint Provides USD For All in Mint Accts, Cards, Apps.

Central Bank Issuer. Universal Access to Mint Accts.

100% Backing with “Like-Kind” (Same) Reserves, and

Protected Value with UCC8 Securities Acct Protections.


eMoney is Stored Value that Mirrors Value in a Bank Acct.

Bank Mirrors, Issues with Fractional Reserve vs eMoney 100% Reserve


eMoney is 1:1, Pay $1 to Get $1 eMoney.

$1 held in Bank Account to Pay as $1 held in eMoney Card is Spent.

Stored, Mirrored.

Stored Value on Card is eMoney (CPSS 2003)

Mirrored in a Bank Account (GSMA 2010)


Stored, Mirrored are integral to Global Regulation of eMoney issuers.


USD Mint issues Central Bank Digital Currency “CBDC” Not eMoney.


Reg E for USA eFund transfers says Virtual Currency is “Outside Scope” since it is Not issued by Banks or the Fed.  Exempt.


USD on Cards and Phones is Outside Scope, Exempt.

USD has No Reg E, Z etc.  $ = Outside Scope, Exempt.

UCC Definition of Money is a Medium of Exchange Authorized by Govt

($ Unit for USD is helpful) 


Medium of Exchange Must Represent a Standard of Value.

USD is The Global Standard of Value. Medium of Exchange is "Currency" 


Authorized definition is SanctionedDone With Official Approval.


Illinois Guidance (Chicago Merc Exchange, Futures, FX, Trading Hub)


Uniform Act (Hawaii SB3082 Passed March 21, 2018 incl “Like-Kind”)

Wyoming SF0125 (Personal Property and Shall be Considered Money)